Saturday, June 25, 2016

The Tale of a Fence


As everybody who lives in St Augustine – and many who don’t – already know, we dedicated and blessed the new entryway at Tolomato Cemetery about a month ago, on May 7th, 2016.  This part of the project is done, although we’re still working on the back and sides and also plan to improve the stretch from the city sidewalk to the actual gate opening. But leaving aside such tedious details, we’d like to get back to some basic questions we are always asked, such as “How long did this take?”



 Well, it’s actually taken almost 240 years, since about 1777, with the arrival of the Minorcans in St Augustine during the British Period (1763-1784). A cemetery had probably existed on that site during the First Spanish Period, but it was associated with the Tolomato Indian mission village and Franciscan-run chapel located there.  This early map shows the location of the chapel, near the corner of modern Cordova and Orange streets.



Normally, burials in Spanish Florida were under the floor of the church or in the churchyard.  There would have been some kind of a wall around the church, extending the consecrated ground and thus making it usable for burials. There’s no record that the Tolomato mission had such a wall, or at any rate, not a stone wall, but there probably would have been some delineation of the space, such as a wooden fence with a gate or a pillar, etc. In a Franciscan village, the mission bell was frequently hung in this area, but the mission bell at Tolomato was probably located in the four-story coquina bell-tower that is recorded as having been part of the Tolomato chapel.

So we don’t have any record of a wall at this time, but we do have a couple of odd features that are difficult to explain and may have been part of a wall or gate.  One of them is visible only in an old photo and must have collapsed long ago, but the other still exists and causes considerable interest among visitors, many of whom take it to be a very strange vault and ask how people could be buried in this small square space.  This pyramid-shaped pile of coquina is only about a 3 feet square and perhaps a little more than that at its top and is located right behind the vault of Elizabeth Forrester, the oldest marked burial in the cemetery.


We have no answer, except that it was probably not a burial vault, unless it was an ossuary (receptacle for placing bones removed from overcrowded vaults or burials).  But it doesn’t seem to have much of an opening, other than the niche in the top, so it would have been difficult to get the skeletal remains into it without removing a few stones.  Speculation has now moved to having its be part of a wall or marking the boundary of an area, and the niche was perhaps for holding the base of a cross or some other marker and may actually have been part of the original mission site, with its "ermita de piedra," or stone chapel. 

But back to what we actually do know about the wall.



The earliest marked burial at the cemetery (and the oldest marked burial in the State of Florida) is that of Elizabeth Forrester, who died in 1798.  You see it above, with the aforementioned mysterious structure visible behind it.  At some point in the following years, grave robbers broke into the vault and stole Elizabeth Forrester's clothing for resale at one of the local thieves’ markets. They were caught and punished, and in 1809, the Spanish governor, Enrique White, ordered Fr. Miguel O’Reilly, the parish priest for the church on the plaza that would eventually be elevated into the Cathedral of St Augustine, to hire a guard and build a fence around the cemetery to prevent such a thing from happening again.

Fr. Miguel O’Reilly complained about the cost of this and said he wasn’t sure how much money was in the treasury because his assistant, Fr. Miguel Crosby, hadn’t audited the accounts for 11 years! However, we can assume that he went ahead and did it.  But again, we have no idea what it looked like, except that it was probably fairly basic, because in 1811, we see plans to change it.


In that year, plans were produced to completely redo the cemetery, creating a more modern cemetery laid out in a grid pattern with numbered burial plots, and a row of stone vaults and a catafalque at the back of the cemetery. (A catafalque in a cemetery is a structure somewhat like a table, where the casket is placed during the final parts of the burial service.)  We see a stone wall around it with ossuaries in the corners and two pillars for a double-leaved gate. However, the governor died in 1811, Fr. Miguel O’Reilly died in 1812 (his vault is shown below), and the Spanish Empire, already under threat from the independence movements of Latin America and the North American tensions that would lead to the War of 1812, simply didn’t have the money or the will to make such expensive improvements to this modest little city.


So the work was never finished - or even started - and the cemetery continued as it was for decades. Even in the mid-19th century, visitors to Tolomato Cemetery complained about the shabby appearance of the fence – which may have been the same one that Fr. Miguel O’Reilly set up in the early years.

In 1853, José María Casals, one of the Cubans who came to St. Augustine in 1853 to aid the ailing Fr. Felix Varela and found that they had arrived too late to do anything more than bury him, accompanied the parish priest, Fr. Aubril, to the cemetery to look at the land for the Varela Chapel. He comments that it was a lonely resting place, with a wooden enclosure and only four or five half-ruined old vaults, so clearly things had not improved much over the years.

Here we see a 19th century photograph of the old wooden wall. The “gate” seems to have been an interior door that had been lopsidedly hung between the crumbling wooden posts.

Even tourists mentioned its dismal state occasionally, and there were complaints from locals that cows kept knocking the fence down and getting into the cemetery.  But it seems not to have been until 1916 that steps were taken to replace the fence with something more dignified. On April 27, 1916, we see this notice in the St Augustine Record: “To Erect A Cemetery Wall: John Reyes has material unloaded on the ground for an artificial stone wall which will be built along the street line of the Catholic cemetery on Cordova street. The wall will be 117 feet long and 42 inches high. It will greatly improve the appearance of the cemetery, displacing the old fence which, although serviceable, was not very ornamental.”

Note the tactful description, “serviceable,” but “not very ornamental.”  So we may conclude that it looked horrible.

This resulted in the building of the concrete wall along the front and parts of the sides of the cemetery, which we see below in an early 20th century photo of strollers on Cordova Street.  Of course, the streets - particularly Cordova Street - had changed since the first days of the mission and cemetery, with some of them being straightened, some being widened, and some being eliminated.  However, allowing for a few feet that were acquired towards the front of the cemetery in the 19th century and the strip of land purchased in 1853 for the building of the Varela Chapel, thus making the original more square-like area more rectangular, the cemetery seems to have maintained its boundaries.


In fact, it is that very wall that came down to us and which we rebuilt along the front in this latest 2016 renovation, almost 100 years after the Record article.  The wall is made of a combination of concrete blocks, blocks of coquina (shown below), and even stacks of brick: in other words, whatever was at hand.



The 2016 repairs were a little more orderly, and consisted of adding concrete block and rebar pilasters to strengthen the wall while giving it another coat of concrete in those areas where it did not need repair.



And of course, the other major improvement was the addition of two high pillars for holding the beautiful wrought-iron gate, topped by its graceful archway that at last proudly bears the name “Tolomato” and gives this beautiful place the honor that it is due.






Thursday, May 12, 2016

Open the Gates!

Saturday, May 7, 2016 was the big day! After some 220 years of starts, false starts and even indifference, Tolomato Cemetery finally got the entryway it has always deserved, one worthy of the beauty of the site, the City of St Augustine and, most important of all, the people who rest within it.

Years of work on the part of the TCPA went into this - in fact, we checked back in our records and saw that we first kicked off plans in 2012 - but now it's done.  And the results are beautiful, even more wonderful than we had hoped.

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In the course of the project, the old chain-link and barbed wire fence on the front was removed, the masonry wall was rebuilt, a new fence was added to the top of it, and a splendid hand-forged wrought iron gate was added to the entryway, topped by the name of the cemetery and a cross in copper.

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This project represents a solid four years of work by the Tolomato Cemetery Preservation Association.  At our board meeting planning for the dedication last week, a member commented that it seemed like we had been working on it forever – and when Louise Kennedy, our Secretary, checked her minutes, she found that the agenda item first appears way back in 2012!  That’s not quite forever, but it is certainly most of the life of the organization, which was only founded in 2010.

The board of the TCPA certainly deserves massive thanks for all the hours and days and weeks spent on this project, ranging from fundraising to consulting with designers and contractors to passing through the HARB (Historic Architecture Review Board) review and other bureaucratic chores.  They’re very modest, however, so while you see them scattered through these photos, such as that of the procession to the gate shown below, they wouldn’t step out for a feature photo!  But we all know who they are!

Procession

Many people were involved in this project, and the purpose of the dedication was to formally open the gates, which were completed only about two days earlier, and thank those many people.We had beautiful weather for the event, held in front of the Varela Chapel and then moving to the gate for the blessing by Fr. Tom Willis.The guests and a few lucky tourists who were just passing by ate cookies and listened to Elizabeth Gessner, President of the TCPA, describe the work and introduce the people who had participated in this nearly four-year-long project.  

Entry

So let’s start with the donors, without which nothing would have been possible! There were first of all the many, many donations we have gotten through our “Foot of Fence” program, where people could visit the website tolomatofence.com and contribute $10 to “buy” or sponsor a foot of fence – or could “buy” as many feet as they wanted. All of these names and those of all the other donors, along with technical information on the construction and the project, will be included in a time capsule to be placed near the front wall sometime this year.

We also had larger individual donors who made memorial contributions and will have memorial plaques placed on the inside of the front wall. More on that as it happens!

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Important institutional donors were also in attendance. They included the Minorcan Society, represented by Carol Lopez Bradshaw, who is shown above talking to the crowd about the work of the Minorcan Society, which raised money by raffling off a traditional Minorcan cast net, handmade by member Mike Usina. Many of those buried in Tolomato are Minorcans, and thus the ancestors of the members of the Minorcan Society, so this was a very fitting moment.

Also present were members of the Rotary Club, represented by Katherine Battenhorst.  Because of the very, very generous 450th Commemoration donation made to the project by the Rotary Club, the northern end of the outside fence now bears a splendid new bronze Rotary plaque honoring this donation so that visitors can see it as they walk downtown from the City parking garage. Louise Kennedy, TCPA Secretary, admires the plaque in this photo below.

Louise and Rotary Plaque

But there were other people who were crucial in this, and they were present to receive their accolades. Don Crichlow, the St Augustine architect who is descended from about half of the historic families whose names can be seen in the cemetery, donated his graceful plan for the fence and entryway that enabled the TCPA to go ahead. The light fence on top of the wall, conserving the 100-year old curve into the gate, are particular features of this plan. We’ll have more historical information on the fence and gate in a blog post within the next week or two so that you can see its connections with that first project of more than 200 years ago.  But meanwhile below you see Don Crichlow talking about his part in this lengthy project.

Don Talking

And then we have the gate! We already see visitors standing in front of it to have their pictures taken and people taking photos of the gate alone, so it’s a pretty spectacular addition that I think will become a St. Augustine landmark. And it was made by a St. Augustinian, Scott Thompson, shown below opening the gate and doing his happy dance because it was finally done and everything was perfect!

Scott Entering Gate

Scott is a graduate of Flagler College and still lives in St Augustine, and actually spontaneously proposed his design at an Open Day when he was visiting with his brother and friends. Graduating with a BFA, he found himself gravitating towards metalwork and is now the blacksmith for an ornamental metalwork company in Jacksonville. He researched different styles and designed the perfect one for this site: an 18th century Spanish style piece, light, airy but at the same time formal and elegant. The gate is wrought iron and the name of the cemetery and the cross are copper, so they will develop a beautiful patina with age.  Everything was forged by Scott at his shop in Jacksonville.

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We also had another “special” heir of Tolomato who came to bless the gates and be the first one to open them: Fr. Tom Willis, the pastor of the Cathedral Basilica (which owns the cemetery). He is a St Augustine native and in his way is also the “heir” of the several St Augustine priests buried in the cemetery, particularly Fr. Miguel O’Reilly, who was responsible for the first fence and gate at the cemetery some 200+ years ago. Below we see Fr. Tom with Scott Thompson, Elizabeth Gessner and Don Crichlow.

Fr. Tom, Scott, EDG, Don

Fr.Tom gave an address on the chapel porch and then led the group from the chapel to the gate while Joanie Oliveros Taylor, Don Chrichlow’s cousin and therefore also related to half the people in the cemetery, played “Amazing Grace,”  accompanied by our “official Chapel Harpist,” Mary Jane Ballou. And then Fr. Tom blessed the gate while the crowd stood on the inside.

Fr T Blessing

Then, as a visual representation of Fr. Miguel O’Reilly and all his predecessors and the history of this place, Fr. Tom Willis was the first person to officially open the gates and go right on through. 

Fr Tom Willis

The moment we had all been waiting for!  By the way, notice the beautiful curve in the fence, which follows the restored old wall and was part of Don’s design, executed in aluminum by local metalworker Glen Easters.

After that, we all went back to stand around the chapel and eat cookies and take photos, such as those in this post, taken by Nick McAuliffe, Patty Kelbert and Joan Roberts.  Meanwhile, Matt Armstrong stayed at the gate, proudly welcoming passing St Augustine visitors to step through the gates.

Matt at Gate

It was truly a beautiful day and a wonderful moment for Tolomato Cemetery. We are hoping that it is pleasing to both past and present St. Augustinians and to our many visitors. The TCPA is very proud of the beautiful work that finally gives the cemetery an entryway worthy of its history and of the people resting there, and thanks all of the many people who helped in this achievement.

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Tuesday, March 15, 2016

Spring Visitors at Tolomato


Spring always brings our migratory visitors back to St Augustine, and this year, it’s started a little early. Our first three group visits this year have been very interesting and remind us what Tolomato is all about.
At the end of February, we had a  visit from the Greek community, led by the wonderful people from St Photios Shrine on St George Street. The many Greek burials at Tolomato are those of the Greek component of the Minorcans.  In St Augustine talk, “Minorcans” means those people who left Minorca – a formerly Spanish Mediterranean island under the control of England during St Augustine’s late 18th century British Period, also as a result of the settlement of the French and Indian War -  and who arrived at New Smyrna Beach in 1765.



But this does not mean they were all Minorcans born and bred. Many of the people that Dr. Turnbull brought back with him as indentured servants (read: slaves) for his indigo plantation in New Smyrna Beach were Italians, Sardinians, Corsicans…and Greeks.  Dr. Turnbull had been the British consul in Smyrna, which was under the Turks at that time, and his wife was a Greek woman from Smyrna, Maria Gracia Bin Dura.  Above, you see the wreath placed by the Greek contingent at the Minorcan sign.  Blue and white are the Greek colors.

Dr. Turnbull's wife thought Greeks could withstand the Florida heat better than the usual English or Irish laborers generally used by the English, so they had originally gone to the Mediterranean to collect Greek workers. However, conflicts  with the Turks had increased, and many of the Greeks had either fled the area or were not permitted  by the Turks to leave.  So Dr. Turnbull dropped off his Greeks on Minorca and then went and collected more workers from other Mediterranean ports – and finally had some 1300 people to take back to Florida.  And the rest, of course, is history...


In 1777, the Minorcans rebelled after years of mistreatment at the hands of Dr. Turnbull and came to St Augustine. They were accompanied by their priest, Fr Pedro Camps, who served both the Catholics and the Greek Orthodox in the colony.   His statue at the Cathedral, shown above, depicts him protecting the Minorcans of the colony.
He was given permission to bury his parishioners at the former Tolomato Indian mission, so there are many Greeks from that first immigration buried at Tolomato Cemetery.  Some of the names have been shortened and Anglicized – such as Papy, for example, which was originally a much longer and more complicated name – but the Greek presence is throughout. 
So it was wonderful to host our Greek friends. This was a special visit, provided for the Greek Deputy Minister, Terens-Nikolaos Quick, shown in the photo below. With him were the Greek Consul in Miami, Adamantia Klotsa, several members of the local Greek community, and Bishop Dimitrios of Xanthos, as well as Polly Hillier, director of St Photios Shrine and many, many Greek descendants of the New Smyrna arrival.  It was a beautiful visit and the TCPA crowd was thrilled to welcome them.

The people in this photo are Dr. John Symeonides (AHEPA), Deputy Minister of the Hellenic Parliament Terens-Nikolaos Quick, Bishop Dimitrios of Xanthos, Commander George Kostanis, Consul General Adamantia Klotsa and Paul Kotrotsios

The next group visit was a large group of Cuban refugees and their Cuban American descendants from Miami, who came to visit the burial place of Fr. Felix Varela. They were led by Julio Hernandez of Miami and were members of the Union Familia Escolapia Cubana (UFEC), an association made up  alumni of schools in Cuba and the US Cuban community run by the Escolapians or Piarists, a religious teaching order founded in Rome by a Spaniard, St. Joseph Calasanz, in the early 17th century. The religious order is known in Spanish as the Orden de las Escuelas Pias (Order of the Pious Schools) and is the oldest of the orders founded specifically for education.
Establishing themselves in Cuba in the mid-19th century, they ran several important schools in the cities of Cuba that provided an excellent education for both the children of prosperous families and the children of the poor.  They were particularly known for their teaching of religion and humanities, and their devotion to Fr. Varela results from their respect for him as an educator and tireless teacher himself. He wrote and did much during his years in Cuba aimed at improving and modernizing education throughout Latin America, producing textbooks as well as writings on educational theory.

The group of alumni was delighted with their visit to the burial place of Fr. Varela.  They were accompanied by one of the members of the order, Fr. Mario Vizcaino, who is shown above standing to the right of Elizabeth Gessner while she tells the visitors about the tomb of Fr. Miguel O'Reilly, Felix Varela's first teacher.  They had earlier been received by St. Augustine Bishop Felipe Estévez with a talk about Fr. Varela.   The group is considering a contribution to the improvement of the lighting in the chapel, and possibly towards the purchase of some AV equipment, and they promise to return.

And finally…the Rotary Club!  The Rotarians came to place a plaque at Tolomato Cemetery commemorating their very generous donation to the completion of the new fence and gate.  St. Augustine residents who drive by the cemetery can watch it taking shape, and once it is finished and the fence is erected, the plaque will be placed on the fence to show the Rotarians’ concern for the beautification and preservation of historic St Augustine. We hope this will take place sometime in the next couple of months.



The Rotary Club of St Augustine came out to the cemetery after their monthly meeting to present the plaque to the TCPA and Fr Tom Willis, as the representative of the property owner, the Cathedral Basilica of St Augustine, for which Tolomato served as the parish cemetery until its closing in 1884.   Below we see Elizabeth Gessner, Fr. Tom Willis and Rotary Club members surrounding Katherine Battenhorst, who is holding the new plaque.



A little research showed how appropriate this project was for the Rotary Club.  The Rotary was founded in 1915 in Chicago by several local businessmen, and got its name from the fact that they initially rotated their meeting places between their different offices.  They were dedicated to the improvement of international understanding through commerce and intellectual exchanges. Their founding, of course, is well after the founding or even closing date of the cemetery, but the Rotary has a long history of connection with St Augustine.



In fact, a Rotarian was one of the people most important in reestablishing St Augustine’s connection with Spain after the Spanish American War had left hostility between the two countries. Ángel Cuesta la Madrid, a Tampa cigar maker originally from Asturias in Northern Spain, birthplace of St Augustine’s founder, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, was a Rotarian and even went on to found the first Rotary Club in Spain. But while in Tampa, where he produced the famous Cuesta-Rey cigars,it was his reconciliation project that eventually brought about the famous trip of St Augustine and US officials to Avilés in 1924 to receive the casket of Pedro Menendez.  The admiral had been reburied in another monument, and Spain gave his original casket to the City of St Augustine as a symbol of renewed friendship.  The casket is still on view in the Diocesan Museum in uptown St Augustine, and the Rotary is still helping St Augustine to discover, communicate and honor its history.



Friday, February 26, 2016

Letter Perfect

Tolomato Cemetery receives many researchers every year, some of them interested in the people buried there, some of them interested in the technical details of the burials…and this year, for the first time, a researcher interested in the lettering of the marker inscriptions.
Our visitor, Lori Young, is a professor of art at the University of Ohio Bowling Green and
is Chair of the Graphic Design division.  She was making a tour of Southern cemeteries for a book project she is undertaking and we were delighted that Tolomato was one of them.  Not only do we have 18th and 19th century American inscription carving, we have a couple of interesting examples of Cuban work to show off.


Part of Lori Young’s specialty, graphic design, is the area of typefaces, that is, simply the way the letter looks.  In this marker for members of the Avice family, you will see several different fonts.

What is a font? Just to give you a brief introduction, a letterform is the way a printed or engraved letter is shaped in terms of slant, thickness, ornamentation, and style. Does it have hooks at the end of the strokes or is it straight up and down? Or perhaps it has flourishes and curlicues? Is it thick or thin, slanted as in italic or dark as in bold?

A typeface means a group of letterforms (a “font family”) that have the same features. One easy thing that distinguishes fonts when you look at them, for example, are whether they have little hooks (serifs) at the ends of the letters or just straight lines (sans-serif).  Below we see two modern fonts, Courier New (with serifs) and Arial (sans-serif) that are commonly used in printed documents:
Courier       Arial
Lettering on stones in cemeteries generally reflects the popular styles of the time and place and can be very useful in telling us something about the people buried there and their times.
Tolomato has several markers that are interesting from a typographical point of view.

The Varela Chapel is first on the list. On the ledger stone that covers the crypt, Lori told us that we have an example of a so-called “Tuscan” font. This was based on a European wooden font (that is, one to be used when letters were printed with wooden blocks) and was sometimes used in stencils. It was popular everywhere, particularly in the Americas, including the Wild West, during the 19th century.
But the Varela stone was carved in Cuba of Cuban marble and not in the Wild West! However, Tuscan-style fonts were well-known everywhere for use in signs and inscriptions, and the Cuban stone carvers probably stenciled the lettering on and then tapped it out with their chisels. Below is a close- up of part of the inscription, which says, fittingly, “THE CUBANS,” referring to the fact that the marker was a tribute to Fr. Varela from his Cuban admirers.

On the front of the chapel is a stone with the classic winged hourglass, indicating that time flies and life is fleeting, although the Varela Chapel has the somewhat unusual variation of bat’s wings. This was placed by the Cubans who paid for the chapel and ordered its furnishings “to explain why we had built it.” This marker is in Spanish, and its translation reads, “This chapel was built by the Cubans in 1853  to preserve the remains of Father Varela.”  And Lori provided some interesting details that we had never noticed or considered before.

The font used on the stone is known as an “Egyptian” font. It’s blocky and has long bars and feet and is also known as a “slab serif” font. In this one, the serifs aren’t little hooks, but are solid, slab-like projections over the bases of the letter.
This font was formally developed in the early 1800s. There is no connection with Egypt in either the design or the artistic approach, but the impact of Napoleon’s trips through Egypt was very strong at the time and somehow the font became known as “Egyptian.” Because of the name, it became popular again in the early 20th century with the discovery of King Tut’s tomb. It’s one of the precursors of the famous mid-20th century Courier font shown earlier.

In addition, the decorative details she is pointing out here are worth examining. These were based on a branching pattern that was common in Southeast Asian temple art and came into Western design motifs, somewhat modified, in the 18th and 19th centuries with the increase of European trade in goods and antiquities with Asia.  Its vaguely recalled association with sacred spaces or items made it particularly suitable for use on gravestones or other Western funeral art.

Lori also found a lot to interest her in this large marker for the Avice family, which you saw at the top of this article. Here, Lori shows Cynthia McAuliffe a letter in the rather large and varied (from a font point of view) inscription on this marker. She called our attention to the calligraphic drawing of the numeral “1” with a sort of upstroke at the top. Notice that there are no serifs, no feet – nothing, just an indentation at the top of the letter, as if it had been a pen-stroke and the writer had swept up the line.

This was simply to distinguish the numeral “1” from its sneaky look-alikes, the capital “I” and the lower case letter “I.”  Anybody who has ever had to struggle over a password or email address where any of these three symbols (“1,” “I” and “l” – that would be one, eye and ell) could be present will certainly appreciate this!  Notice how it differs from the “I” in “DIED” above it.

Lori will keep us posted on her further research.  Below, she takes one last photo of the Elizabeth Forrester vault from 1798, the oldest marked burial in the state of Florida, its beautiful 18th century script unfortunately almost eroded away.  Lori Young will be on sabbatical next year to work on this project, so we might even hope that she can come back and visit Tolomato again and give us more fascinating details on this rarely considered aspect of cemeteries.


Wednesday, January 27, 2016

Before Tolomato


St Augustine was founded in 1565 and Tolomato was established as a cemetery in 1777.  Located just outside the city wall and under the gun emplacements, the site had been in use since about 1706 as a Franciscan Indian mission, which would also have included a burial ground. Abandoned during the British Period, the arrival of the Minorcans in 1777 brought Tolomato into use again, this time as the parish cemetery. It remained so after the British left and the Spanish returned and built what is now the Cathedral on the Plaza.
But where were St Augustinians buried before that time?  Just this week, we had a dramatic meeting with the past.


The City Archaeologist, Carl Halbirt, conducts digs at places where the ground is going to be disturbed down to a certain depth. There is a sewer replacement project planned for Charlotte St., which is one of the original streets of the city and passes by the site of the first permanent church established by the Spanish in what is now the downtown area.  The church was named Nuestra Señora de los Remedios, Our Lady of the Remedies, which was a popular name in the Spanish territories because of their remoteness from even the relatively rudimentary medical help of the times.  Prayer was really the only recourse.  The fact that the 18th century Spanish Military Hospital is located right next to this site indicates its importance in the history of healing throughout the centuries.

The building next to the site where Carl made this latest find is located on the exact site of Los Remedios, as indicated by the archaeological plaque on the west side, Aviles Street, commemorating another one of Carl’s digs. The building, shown below, is now in use as an art gallery but was built in 1964 by the State of Florida for use as a visitor information center.  It was constructed on the site of Los Remedios and its cemetery. One of the features of the building was a plexiglass window in the floor through which visitors could gaze down upon skeletons of those who had been buried there centuries earlier.  Tastes changed and it was eventually decided that this was not very respectful, so the window is now closed!

Los Remedios was built in 1572 and destroyed in 1586 by Drake, rebuilt and then destroyed for a final time by Governor James Moore in 1702, in the same wave of attacks that destroyed the Tolomato Mission near the modern Guana River Preserve.  Burials thus continued at the site for some 130 years, although we do not know with any certainty the number of people buried there. 
The usual place of burial was under the church floor, particularly for the more important people in town. When the space under the floor was exhausted, burials moved out into the churchyard, which was usually set behind a wall so that all the space was consecrated space.  An interesting detail that you can see if you look closely at this photo is a bit of what is possibly the tabby floor of the church or at any rate a seal of clay around skeletal foot bones (which are pointing towards the right edge of the photo), indicating that these people were indeed buried under the floor of the church and not in the churchyard.
The general practice was to leave burials in situ for a certain amount of time, and when more space was needed, the few remaining bones of persons buried earlier were collected and reburied, often in an ossuary. The word is based on the Latin word os, meaning bone, and refers to a container or space for reburial of bones. Sometimes they were placed in niches in the wall around the churchyard, if there was a stone or adobe wall, and sometimes the ossuary was simply a separate walled-off space where bones were cast. And sometimes they were taken out temporarily and then reburied on top of the new and deeper burial, as probably happened here.




If you examine the photo above, you will see the remains of at least three people.  This means that the ground had been disturbed sometime way back when, since the 19th and 20th century disturbances of the ground for urban projects never replaced the burials but simply cast them aside or at best dumped them back into the ground helter-skelter.  But these “extra” bones had been carefully replaced, so Carl said that he thought they had been removed to permit new burials and then replaced in a small rectangular area that would have constituted the ossuary.  In other words, we were looking at some of the earliest St Augustine residents, possibly even the first settlers, and were looking at bones that had not been seen in hundreds of years.

 Now take a look at the area circled in red.  This is a jawbone seated on top of a spinal column (which is lying under older bones that had been replaced in the grave) and of one of the interesting things is that the head points toward the east. Normally, Catholic burials in a cemetery were facing towards the East, since the Lord was supposed to come again from the east on the Day of Judgment.  However, this skull is facing west. Why is that?

Fr. Tom Willis from the Cathedral came out to visit his “ancestral parishioners,” which is exactly what they would have been, since the Cathedral has inherited all these earlier Church burial spaces. When Carl mentioned that these bodies were buried in the church facing towards the altar, Fr. Tom Willis explained that in this situation, this actually was the East…the “liturgical East.” That is, the place where the altar is located represents the East, so if you are facing it, you are facing towards Jerusalem, the Garden of Eden and all of the other Biblical references of early cartography and spatial understanding of the East. And of course, it is there that you will see the Risen Lord, and this is why in the Catholic liturgy, the altar is considered the East.  Thus people buried under the floor in the church building would have been facing the altar, which in this case was at the west end of the building – but thereby became the liturgical East.  So while facing west, the burials within the church building were all actually facing the East, in the symbolic sense of the term. 

When Carl came across these remains today, he fully expected to do so because he knows the downtown sites so well.  However, these burials were remarkably well preserved, probably because of their closeness to the water and the fact that they have been kept almost underwater for centuries. Air dries bones and reduces them to dust, but water will preserve them until they are removed from the wet environment…and then they dry out and turn to dust almost immediately. 
Below, Carl probes to determine the starting point for the "sterile soil," that is, soil that has not been disturbed and lies underneath the burials, although the soil was too wet to determine this.  The water table is about three feet down at this point.

But back to Charlotte Street. What is going to happen now?  Carl would like the city to move the proposed sewer line to the other side of Charlotte Street, a narrow street that has already been disturbed many times, and then he will cover up the bones with a layer of sand and replace the soil and the street will be repaved with cobblestones.  And as for those remains that cannot be replaced in their spaces at the site, they will go either to Tolomato or to the Mission for reburial. 

We don’t know anything about these individuals; above we see Dr. Kathy Deagan contemplating their bones. They were all once like us, living, breathing people walking the streets of St Augustine.  And I’m sure that they had no idea that, several centuries later , their very skeletons would be appearing before the eyes of thousands of people in a form that could not in any possible way have been imaginable to them - notice the large camera lens at the top of the photo! 

But most of all, as Fr. Tom Willis reminded us, we should remember that hundreds of years ago, these people received the benefit of what is still one of the most important Corporal Works of Mercy, which are things to be done by a Christian to aid others: Burying the Dead. Even here in rough early St Augustine, desperate though its circumstances may have been, these human bodies were treated with respect and given the honor due them.  And we should thank our ancestors on this little peninsula for having saved and passed on this heritage to us.